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#1 29-08-2018 03:02:43

reba520
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Date d'inscription: 16-07-2018
Messages: 52

Cooperating with the late scriptwriter

WASHINGTON Cheap Ryan Johansen Hoodie , Feb. 19 (Xinhua) -- Much of the damage that ultraviolet radiation (UV) does to skin occurs hours after sun exposure, and this delayed reaction appears to be due to the skin pigment melanin, a U.S. study said Thursday.


Melanin, which gives skin its color, is usually thought of as a protective pigment, blocking the UV radiation that damages DNA and contributes to skin cancer.


But there was also evidence from studies suggesting that melanin was associated with skin cell damage.


In the new study, Douglas Brash, professor of the Yale University, and his colleagues first exposed mouse and human melanocytes, the cells that make the melanin, to radiation from a UV lamp.


The radiation caused a type of DNA damage known as a cyclobutane dimer (CPD), in which two DNA "letters" attach and bend the DNA, preventing the information it contains from being read correctly.


The researchers were surprised to find that the melanocytes not only generated CPDs immediately but continued to do so more than three hours after UV exposure ended. Cells without melanin generated CPDs only during the UV exposure.


The results, published in the U.S. journal Science, showed that melanin had both carcinogenic and protective effects.


"If you look inside adult skin, melanin does protect against CPDs. It does act as a shield," said Brash. "But it is doing both good and bad things."


The researchers next tested the extent of damage that occurred after sun exposure by preventing normal DNA repair in mouse samples. They found that half of the CPDs in melanocytes were " dark CPDs" -- CPDs created in the dark.


Further research showed that the UV light activated two enzymes that combined to "excite" an electron in melanin, and that the energy generated from this process, known as chemiexcitation, in turn, causes the same DNA damage that sunlight caused in daytime.


Chemiexcitation has previously been seen only in lower plants and animals.


While noting that news of the carcinogenic effect of melanin is disconcerting, the researchers also said that the slowness of chemiexcitation may allow time for new preventive tools, such as an "evening-after" sunscreen designed to block the energy transfer.


This January marks the tenth anniversary of the first episode of the TV series "My Own Swordsman". Online many fans expressed surprise at how fast a decade had gone by, while others remarked how the show had earned an irreplaceable position in China's TV history.


While Western sitcoms such as "The Big Bang Theory or Modern Family" often win big name awards, sitcoms in China have a much harder time getting recognition. Since the sitcom format first appeared on mainland TV in 1994, there have been only a few truly influential Chinese sitcoms. While the genre is still rather young compared to the US or the UK, this lack of successful sitcoms demonstrates the dilemma comedy faces in China. Restricted in their ability to make light of certain subjects, sitcoms lack the bite that is needed to make them truly impactful.


Breaking ground


After earning his master degree at the University of Missouri in the US, multi-talented director and actor Ying Da tried to import sitcoms to China during the early 1990s. At the time, Shanghai TV was having great success with its dubbed version of US sitcom "Growing Pains" (1985-92) in China, showing that there was certainly a potential audience base for Chinese-made sitcoms in the country.


Cooperating with the late scriptwriter Liang Zuo, Ying started development on "I Love My Family", a sitcom about a family of six in Beijing who each had their own distinct backgrounds. Wanting real laughter to accompany the performances, Ying filmed in front of a live studio audience. Except for Ying's other work Chinese Restaurant, no other sitcom in China would ever do so again.


Even though this sitcom is commonly recognized as one of the top sitcoms in China, it was criticized a lot when it first appeared on TV in 1994. Beijing TV stopped airing the show after six episodes because some audiences said it was making fun of retired officials.


After audiences gradually got used to its humor that would cover everything from family life to national policy, the show not only gained a huge following but kicked off the sitcom genre in China. Establishing a TV production studio in 1994, Ying went on to create a number of "Ying-style" sitcoms such as "Chinese Restaurant" (1998), "Xianren Madajie" (2000), "Dongbei Yijiaren" (2001) and "The Railway Station" (2002). Filmbug describes Ying as the "Norman Lear of China" for his contributions.


According to an interview with the Beijing Daily, then general manager of Ying's studio Wang Xiaojing recalled that most of the sitcoms were not huge money-makers.


"In China, sitcoms barely had a future. Audiences found them too low-brow, while TV stations weren't willing to pay high prices for them. In that case, who was willing to make them?" Wang said.


In an interview with the Beijing Daily two decades after the first broadcast of "I Love My Family", Ying concluded that the success of "I Love My Family" was its willingness to be critical of social realities in China. Something that he feels modern comedies lack.


"When we write comedy nowadays, we go soft so we won't hurt anybody. But how can a comedy go without hurting someone?" Ying said.


Ancient sitcoms


Like "I Love My Family", most Chinese sitcoms focused on families or workplaces and events taking place in small neighborhoods. Some sitcoms went even more local, producing shows in different dialects for local audiences in different regions of China.


"My Own Swordsman"'s appearance in 2006 was a breath of fresh air for the genre. While period dramas were extremely common in China, "My Own Swordsman" was a rare period sitcom that centered on different swordsman archetypes found in many martial arts novels.. Jerseys From China   Jerseys Free Shipping   NHL Jerseys Cheap   NFL Jerseys Wholesale   NFL Jerseys From China   Authentic Jerseys Wholesale   Basketball Jerseys China   Authentic Jerseys Cheap   Nike NBA Jerseys China   Authentic Soccer Jerseys From China

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